Lithium Niobate (LiNbO3) Crystal Substrates (5pack)

(5 Pack)

Price per substrate = $14.60 ea

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AVAILABILITY: Delivery ~3 weeks

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  • Name: LiNbO3, Lithium Niobate Single Crystal Substrates
  • Lattice parameter:a= 5.418Å, c= 13.863 Å 
  • Crystal Structure: Trigonal
  • Commonly used as substrate for: Surface acoustic wave (SAW) devices, ZnO, YBCO, 
  • Surface Roughness: Ra <0.5 nm (measured 5x5 µm AFM scan)
  • Available Dimensions: 5x5 mm to 4 inch diameter and customized
  • Single or double side polished
  • Cut to order (3 weeks)

    Common orientations of LiNbO3 are Z-cut, X-cut (11-20), Y-cut

    This is the different nomenclature referring to the surface acoustic wave properties of the material for which this material is best known and commonly used in single crystal form. Z-Cut is the most common, X-Cut quartz are cut at an angle of 35 degrees to the Z axis. Y cut are cut at an angle of 90 to the Z axis

    Lithium Niobate (LN) is a ferroelectric material with excellent electro-optic, nonlinear, and piezoelectric properties. Lithium niobate crystals are technically important materials for optical waveguides, mobile phones, piezoelectric sensors, optical modulators and various other linear and non-linear optical applications. It is transparent for wavelengths between 350 and 5200 nanometers.

    As it is commonly used in devices, this synthetic material is readily available in single crystal form up to 4 inch diameter and has been used as a substrate for manythin films for example YBCO and ZnO. most commonly however, LiNbO3 used to make devices due to it interesting properties: .e. Electro-optical modulation, Q-switching and Laser frequency conversion of wavelengths (>1 µm).

    Periodically poled lithium niobate (PPLN) is a domain-engineered lithium niobate crystal, used mainly for achieving quasi-phase-matching in nonlinear optics. The ferroelectric domains point alternatively to the +c and the −c direction, with a period of typically between 5 and 35 µm. The shorter periods of this range are used for second harmonic generation, while the longer ones for optical parametric oscillation. Periodic poling can be achieved by electrical poling with periodically structured electrode. If you need PPLN then please email us with your requirements. 

    LiNbO3 X-cut  (11-20):

    X-cut lithium niobate is a material with a crystalline structure that has been cut along the x-axis. This crystal can be used in a variety of optical and acousto-optical applications such as frequency-shifting, phase modulation, and waveguide fabrication.

    In an X-cut crystal, the electric field is applied along the X-axis. The Miller indices (11-20) correspond to the crystallographic directions in terms of the Miller indices (hkl). In this case, it means the cut is made along the crystallographic direction [1120]. This cut is often used in various optical devices.

    LiNbO3 Y-cut  (10-10):

    Y-cut lithium niobate is a material with a crystalline structure that has been cut along the y-axis. This crystal can be used in a variety of optical and acousto-optical applications such as optical switching, polarization manipulation, and optical parametric generation.

    In a Y-cut crystal, the electric field is applied along the Y-axis. The Miller indices (10-10) correspond to the crystallographic direction [100]. This cut is often used in applications where a specific refractive index is required.

    LiNbO3 Z-cut  (0001):

    Z-cut lithium niobate is a material with a crystalline structure that has been cut along the z-axis. This crystal can be used in a variety of optical and acousto-optical applications such as second harmonic generation, wavelength conversion, and optical parametric oscillation. The different experimental set up requirements for each of these types of lithium niobate depend on the specific application. For example, an experiment requiring second harmonic generation would need a z-cut lithium niobate crystal, while an experiment requiring frequency-shifting would need an x-cut lithium niobate crystal. In general, the experimental set up requirements for each type of lithium niobate will depend on the application and the specific parameters of the experiment.

    In a Z-cut crystal, the electric field is applied along the Z-axis. The Miller indices (0001) correspond to the crystallographic direction [0001]. This cut is commonly used for nonlinear optics and acousto-optic devices.

    Trigonal Crystal System:

    LiNbO3 is a member of the trigonal crystal system so is denotes in hexagonal (4 indices) format.

    In this arrangement, the Z-axis is perpendicular to both the X and Y axes. However, the X and Y axes are not necessarily perpendicular to each other; they are oriented in the plane perpendicular to the Z-axis.

    Below is a good schematic, although in 3-indices notation

    LiNbO3 x y z substrates

    Below is a schematic description of X-Y cuts, common for SAW applications - 

    LiNbO3 saw cut x y z


    For more information I recommend this paper on SAW applications "Surface AcousticWave (SAW) Sensors: Physics, Materials, and Applications, Debdyuti Mandal and Sourav Banerjee"


    PURITY: >99.99%
    CRYSTAL ORIENTATION:  (100), (110) & (111)
    GROWTH METHOD: Czochralski method
    CRYSTAL STRUCTURE: Trigonal system
    LATTICE CONSTANT: a=b=5.148Å     c=13.863 Å 
    MELTING POINT  (°C): 1250℃
    THERMAL EXPANSION COEFFICIENT (/K): A11=15.4 x 10-6/k, a33=7.5 x 10-6/k
    MOLAR MASS (G/MOL): 147.846 g/mol
    DENSITY (G/CM3): 4.64 g/cm3
    REFRACTIVE INDEX: No=2.286 ne=2.203 (632.8nm)
    SIZES: 5x5mm & 10x10 mm
    SIZE TOLERANCES:  +/- 0.1mm
    THICKNESS TOLERANCES:  +/- 0.015mm
    ORIENTATION PRECISION: +/-0.5 degree
    ROUGHNESS RA: <0.5nm
    ELECTRO-OPTIC COEFFIEIENT γ13=8.6,γ22=3.4,γ33=30.8,γ51=28.0,γ22=6.00(pmv-1)
    SPECTRAL TRANSMISSION RANGE 370 - 5000nm  >68% (632.8nm)
    NON LINEAR COEFFICIENT D33=34.45, d31=d15=5.95, d22=13.07 (PMV-1)


    coming soon.


    How long does it take for you to ship out after purchase? In-Stock Substrates are held in our US warehouse and we aim to have substrates shipped out within 24-48 hours.

    Pre-Order Substrates are manufactured and delivered in 3-4 weeks. 

    How much is shipping? All substrates are shipped free of charge within the USA. This shipping takes approx 4-5 days to arrive once shipped. 

    Expedited delivery? Faster delivery options are available. Below are some indicative prices. To get the cost for your package and location, just add your address at check out and select the shipping option you want to check.

    • USA FedEx 2 day delivery: typically $25 USD
    • USA FedEx Overnight Delivery: typically $65USD. 
    • Canada FedEx International Priority: typically $25 USD.

      Europe and UK Delivery? Approx cost for delivery is 50 Euros. Shipping costs will be calculated at check-out based on your address or please complete the quote form and we will email you the price. VAT and customs charges are payable by the buyer. 

      Rest of Worldwide Shipping? Shipping costs to the rest of the World, will be calculated at check-out. Please be aware that delivery times and tracking information vary for each country. Customs charges may apply if shipping outside of the US and are payable by the buyer.


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        We believe we have the cheapest and best quality products in the USA. If you find another US company with a lesser price (including delivery) we would be happy to price match. 

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